Education

Ways Of Safeguarding The Rights Of Citizens

The United Nations adopted the Declaration of Rights in 1948. And these rights are meant to safeguard the rights of citizens.

Rules Safeguarding The Rights Of A Citizen

These rights are divided into Natural Rights (Fundamental Human Rights) and Social Rights.

1. Fundamental Human Rights:

Human existence depends on these rights. The rights are:

1. Right to life.
2. Right to the dignity of the Human Person.
3. Right to personal liberty.
4. Right to a fair hearing.
5. Right to private and family life.
6. Right to freedom of thought, conscience, and religion.
7. Rights to freedom of expression and the press.
8. Right to peaceful assembly and association.
9. Right to freedom of movement.
10. Right to freedom from discrimination.

Their rights are constitutionally guaranteed. Their breach may lead to a disorderly society whose right is breached. The judiciary ensures the protection of these rights

2. Social Rights:

These include:

1. Right to education.
2. Right to work and just remuneration.
3. Right to protection against unemployment.
4. Right to social security.

The rights of citizens can be described as those legal claims which every citizen enjoys and that the state must protect and guarantee.

Ways Of Safeguarding The Rights Of A Citizen

1. The Constitution:

Fundamental human rights are entrenched in the Constitution. This ensures that those rights are not abused but where they are, safeguards are provided.

2. Rule Of Law:

The existence of the rule of law makes it mandatory for the government to ensure the existence of civil liberties.

3. Independence Of The Judiciary:

The principle of separation of power ensures that neither the executive nor the legislature interferes with judicial activities.

4. Freedom Of The Press:

As a societal watchdog, the press must be free.

The Rights Of Citizens

5. Existence Of Opposition:

This group ensures that the government does not trample on the rights of citizens.

6. Human Rights Commission:

They serve as an avenue for redressing injustice. The public complaints commission is a typical example.

7. The Citizens:

Every citizen must consciously ensure that his rights are not trampled upon.

8. Respect For International Conventions On Human Rights:

Countries are bound by international conventions especially those on the treatment of prisoners of war, such conventions must be obeyed.

9. Provision Of Legal Aid:

Government and the civil society should provide legal aid to those who cannot afford it.

10. Proper Enforcement Of Law And Order By Security Agencies And Community:

Security agencies must not be over-zealous in the enforcement of laws.

11. Provision Of Social And Economic Facilities:

Hospitals, schools, and employment opportunities must be provided by the government.

Duties And Obligations Of Citizens

1. Obedience to laws
2. Payment of taxes
3. Loyalty to the nation
4. Voting at the election

Duties And Obligations Of Government

1. Defense of the nation
2. Protection of life and property
3. Provision of public utilities and services
4. Protecting the interest of citizens abroad

Restriction Of Rights Of Individuals

The rights of individuals can be restricted under the following circumstances:

1. During State Of Emergency:

Emergencies like natural disasters, earthquakes, Hood, and typhoons may result in the declaration of a state of emergency. The consequence is that government may put in place laws that will enable it to deal with the situation and people’s rights will be affected.

2. In An Epidemic:

This also calls for an emergency as there will be an urgent need to combat outbreaks of disease, especially cholera.

3. Arrest By The Police:

When one is suspected of having committed a crime, the police will arrest him pending his arraignment before a competent court of jurisdiction.

4. Remand In Prison Custody:

The difference here is that a court remands the accused in prison custody pending when he is granted bail or his case is disposed of, The court can also intervene here pending when the accused is arraigned before a competent court of jurisdiction.

5. Imprisonment:

An accused person can be sentenced to prison term if the court is satisfied that he committed the offense.

6. National Security:

An individual can be detained if security agencies feel convinced that he poses a threat to national security. The person can even be held without trial.

7. Type Of Government:

Military governments are not known to govern according to the rule of law. The government is authoritarian and totalitarian.

Rule Of Law Safeguard The Rights Of A Citizen

How The Rule Of Law Safeguard The Rights Of A Citizen

Rule of law simply means the supremacy of the law. Citizens are governed according to the laws of a state. The rule of law protects citizens against arbitrary rule and ensures that the rights and liberty of the individual are preserved.

The principles of the rule of law were advanced by A.V. Dicey and are based on the following:
1. Principle Of Innocence:

An accused person is presumed innocent until he is tried and found guilty by a competent court.

2. Principle Of Education:

All citizens are equal before the law. However, this principle is limited by international laws and immunity.

3. The Constitution Is Based On The Right Of Individuals:

These rights are regarded as inalienable rights. All constitutions must take cognizance of these rights.

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