3 Main Types Of Party System

Are you looking for the types of party systems in existence? If yes, then here in this article, we are going to list and explain the three main types of party systems.

Party systems may vary depending on the country

Types Of Party Systems

The following are the types of party systems with their advantages and disadvantages:

1. One-Party System
2. Two-Party System
3. Multi-Party System

1. One-Party System:

This refers to a system where only one political party is recognized and allowed to control the affairs of the government. Opposition parties are not allowed.

One or single party system separate better in the Aller countries both in population and land mass and non-multicultural society.

Some African countries like Ghana under Nkrumah, Guinea under Ahmed TourĂ©, Kenyatta’s Kenya, Zaire, Tanzania, Zambia, etc, have at one time or the other operated one party system.

Advantages Of One Party System

1. Provides Strong Leadership:

The leader is vested with a lot of power. This enables him to have a firm grip on government and he is not bothered by opposition parties.

2. Save Cost:

Elections are less expensive. The cost of running the government is low and where subventions are given to political parties, the government will conserve a lot of funds from this source.

3. Makes For Stability In Government:

The government remains stable because there is no alternative party.

4. Gives Room For National Unity:

The country is not divided along political lines. Everybody is coerced into one political party and ideology, thereby making for national unity.

5. Enhances Quick Decisions:

The existence of one political party means there is a single ideology. The decision-making process is fast and less cumbersome.

Disadvantages Of One Party System

Here are the disadvantages of the one-party system:

1. It Leads To Dictatorship:

Experience has shown that leaders in most one-party states are dictatorial. And there is no respect for the rule of law, and power tends to corrupt the leader.

2. Does Not Allow Opposition:

Opposition parties not only make the government sit up but offer the people an alternative. But the situation in a one-party state does not allow this.

3. Limits The Choice Of Candidates:

It is undemocratic. The electorate is not allowed to choose alternative ideologies.

2. Two-Party System:

This is a type of party system in which two political parties dominate and regularly control the machinery of government. The other political parties make minimal impact on elections.

Advantages Of Two Party System

1. Promotes Political Stability:

Political parties voted into power usually enjoy some stability. In America, the Republicans and the Democrats have always alternated in control of the machinery of government.

2. Produces Strong Opposition:

The presence of strong opposition prevents dictatorial government.

3. Elections Are More Meaningful:

The electorate is presented with alternative policies and candidates.

4. Accountability:

The government in power acts very responsibly and accountable as they could be rejected at the next election.

5. Choice Of Political Parties:

Politicians are offered a choice of political parties.

6. Encourages Popular Choice:

It promotes popular government by ensuring that the most popular candidate or government wins the election.

7. Political Education:

It encourages political education since a more aggressive political campaign is involved.

Party System

Disadvantages Of Two Party System

As a two-party system has its advantages, it also has disadvantages. However, here are the disadvantages of the two-party system:

1. Fractionalization:

The society is divided into two opposing camps.

2. Victimization:

It leads to opposition and victimization of political opponents.

3. Does Not Encourage the Development Of Other Political Parties:

The system makes it impossible for minor political parties to grow.

4. Party Loyalty:

National interest is usually sacrificed on the altar of party loyalty.

5. Political Rivalry:

It leads to unhealthy and unnecessary political rivalry between two parties.

6. Limited Choice:

The two-party system presents the electorate with a limited choice of candidates for election.

7. Waste Of Resources:

A lot of resources are wasted during political campaigns.

3. Multi-Party system

A multi-party system may be defined as a political system in which more than two political parties are allowed to compete for gaining political power and governing the country.

There is hardly any dominant political party. Several political parties regularly win a good proportion of votes. There are more than two major political parties. Most often, the government is formed through a coalition.

Advantages Of Multi-Party System

1. Caters For Minority Interest:

There is always the fear that majority tribes will dominate minorities in a one or two-party system but under the multi-party system, minority tribes become the beautiful bride as their votes are needed to enable any of the major tribes to control the machinery of government.

2. Represents Various Interests And Views:

It normally takes a coalition to form the government. By so doing, various interests and views are represented in government.

3. Removes Blind Loyalty To Party Lines:

The fact that most governments under this system are a coalition, makes politicians more loyal to the government than their political parties.

4. Removes The Possibility Of Dictatorship:

The President can’t become dictatorial since his government can be removed.

5. Gives Room For The Formation Of a Coalition:

It allows more political parties to participate in government.

Disadvantages Of Multi-Party System

1. Leads To Instability In Government:

This is more common in a parliamentary system. The collapse of a coalition most times results in the collapse of the government. The constant use of votes of no confidence makes the government unstable.

2. The Executive Arm Is Weak:

The fear of a vote of no confidence and impeachment makes the executive a stooge in the hands of Parliament. There is a tendency for parliament to hold the executive to ransom.

3. It Is Difficult To Draw Up Long-Term Planning And Policy:

The absence of security of tenure and stability in government makes long-term planning difficult.

4. Encourages Corruption:

The desperate bid to stay in power encourages bribery and corruption. And the fact that the government has to lobby to have its policies approved means that bribery may be a major tool for lobbying.


We believe this post about the types of party systems, has made you know the three major types of party systems with their advantages and disadvantages.

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